Hudson's Bay Company


Hudson's Bay Company
   Organized by a number of English gentlemen, who sent out a trading expedition to Hudson Bay, in the Nonsuch, in 1668. This initial venture proved so successful that two other ships were sent out in 1670; and the same year King Charles granted a charter incorporating them as "The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay." For many years the operations of the Company were confined to the shores of Hudson Bay, but the pressure of competition eventually forced them inland, and at the height of their power they had established trading-posts from Labrador to the Pacific, and from California almost to the Arctic. In 1821, the rival North West Company (q.v.) was absorbed; and in 1869 the company surrendered to Canada its territorial rights in British North America.
   Index: F 203; trading done and posts established by, 204; redress claimed by, for losses inflicted by the French, 343. Dr Its territory not included in Canada, 7. B Deputation of Red River settlers sent to England to complain of misgovernment by, 212; Gladstone admits charter of Company not valid, 212; Globe on company's misgovernment of North-West Territories, 213-214; attacked in series of letters in the Globe, signed "Huron," 215-216; Toronto Board of Trade on, 216; George Brown on, 219; Canada takes over North-West Territories, and compensates Company therefor, 220-221. MS Early policy of, 1; attitude of natives to, 2; opposition of Montreal traders (afterwards North West Company), 2, 3; sends Hearne inland, 3; averse to conflict with North West Company, 5; builds posts in Assiniboine and Red River country, 5, 6; absorbs North West Company, 8; policy towards natives, 51; sends George Clarke to explore, 56; his incompetence, 56; then sends Philip Turner, 1791, 56; legal basis of its title, 143-145; Selkirk purchases tract of land in Red River valley, 146; Parliamentary Report of 1857, 212; union of the Companies, 213-214; takes over management of Selkirk colony, 222; establishes Council of Assiniboia, 223; notable leaders after the union of the Companies, 220-223; its influence on side of government, in Rebellion of 1837, 242; its license to trade renewed, 271; the Report of 1857, 271; opposition to further renewal, 271; evidence taken by committee, 272-278; committee's report, 279; defended by Sir George Simpson before Parliamentary committee, 272-278. D Influence upon development of Pacific coast, 4; operations typical of British colonial policy, 11; established in the interior, 12; conserves British interests in Western America, 17, 18; charged with neglecting to search for route to Pacific, 51; absorbs North West Company, 1821, 73, 93; birth of, 73; provisions of its charter, 73-74; its trade and explorations, 74; its organization, 75-76; its Western department, 76-77; trade routes, 77-78; its farms on Puget Sound, etc., 78; grist mills and other enterprises, 78; supplies Russians with flour, etc., 78; opens coal mines on Vancouver Island, 78; influence of these industries on settlement, 79; treatment of Indians, 79-81; trading-posts, 82; brigades and "York boats," 82; famous officers of, 83-86; ambitious designs on Pacific coast and beyond, 114; attempt to establish post on Stikine River, 119-120; permission obtained from Russians to build post on Taku River, 121; operations on Liard and Yukon, 123-125; invades California before 1830, 126; builds post at junction of Sacramento and Jesus Maria rivers, 126; establishes post on San Francisco Bay, 127; sells post and retires from San Francisco Bay, 127; meets competition of American traders and companies, 134-136; attitude towards Oregon settlers, 143-144; license to trade of 1821 renewed in 1838, 191; its provisions, 192; acquires Vancouver Island, 194; attitude towards settlement there, 194-195; quarrels with settlers, 198-199; Report of Committee, 1857, 201-202; license to trade in British Columbia revoked, 1858, 229; relations towards British Columbia government, 1858, 233-234; Douglas's relation towards, 263; defends its policy, 264-265; officers of Company at Victoria, 265; influence with natives, 266-267; builds first Protestant church at Victoria, 1855, 269. C Cartier and MacDougall sent to England by Canadian government in 1869 to negotiate purchase of Company's territories in North-West, 68; Company asks exorbitant price, 68; persuaded by Lord Grey to accept £300,000, 68. Bk Its voyageurs assist in capture of Michilimackinac, 210. Md Its claims investigated, 83; terms upon which it agreed to transfer to the crown its rights to North-West Territories, 156; protest against unauthorized proceedings in Red River Settlement, 157. See North-West Company; X Y Company; Fur Trade; Selkirk.
   Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Willson, Great Company; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Bryce, Romantic History of Lord Selkirk's Colonists; Ross, Red River Settlement; Hargrave, Red River; Begg, History of the North-West.

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